The following appeared as part of an article in a daily newspaper:
"Most companies would agree that as the risk of physical injury occurring on the job increases, the wages paid to employees should also increase. Hence it makes financial sense for employers to make the workplace safer: they could thus reduce their payroll expenses and save money."
Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion.
This argument states that it makes financial sense for employers to make the workplace safer because by making the workplace safer then lower wages could be paid to employees. This conclusion is based on the premise that as the list of physical injury increases, the wages paid to employees should also increase. However, there are several assumptions that may not necessarily apply to this argument. For example, the costs associated with making the workplace safe must outweigh the increased payroll expenses due to hazardous conditions. Also, one must look at the plausability of improving the work environment. And finally, because most companies agree that as the risk of injury increases so will wages doesn’t necessarily mean that the all companies which have hazardous work environments agree.
The first issue to be addressed is whether increased labor costs justify large capital expenditures to improve the work environment. Clearly one could argue that if making the workplace safe would cost an exorbitant amount of money in comparison to leaving the workplace as is and paying slightly increased wages than it would not make sense to improve the work environment. For example, if making the workplace safe would cost $100 million versus additional payroll expenses of only $5,000 per year, it would make financial sense to simply pay the increased wages. No business or business owner with any sense would pay all that extra money just to save a couple dollars and improve employee health and relations. To consider this, a cost benefit analysis must be made. I also feel that although a cost benefit analysis should be the determining factor with regard to these decisions making financial sense, it may not be the determining factor with regard to making social, moral and ethical sense.
This argument also relies on the idea that companies solely use financial sense in analysing improving the work environment. This is not the case. Companies look at other considerations such as the negative social ramifications of high on-job injuries. For example, Toyota spends large amounts of money improving its environment because while its goal is to be profitable, it also prides itself on high employee morale and an almost perfectly safe work environment. However, Toyota finds that it can do both, as by improving employee health and employee relations they are guaranteed a more motivated staff, and hence a more efficient staff; this guarantees more money for the business as well as more safety for the employees.
Finally one must understand that not all work environments can be made safer. For example, in the case of coal mining, a company only has limited ways of making the work environment safe. While companies may be able to ensure some safety precautions, they may not be able to provide all the safety measures necessary. In other words, a mining company has limited ability to control the air quality within a coal mine and therefore it cannot control the risk of employees getting blacklung. In other words, regardless of the intent of the company, some jobs are simply dangerous in nature.
In conclusion, while at first it may seem to make financial sense to improve the safety of the work environment sometimes it truly does not make financial sense. Furthermore, financial sense may not be the only issue a company faces. Other types of analyses must be made such as the social ramifications of an unsafe work environment and the overall ability of a company to improve that environment (i.e., coal mine). Before any decision is made, all this things must be considered, not simply the reduction of payroll expenses.
1. 这篇GRE作文首先在字数高达599words, GRE考试虽然没有对写作提出明确的字数要求，但其评分时偏好字数更多的文章却也是不争的事实。
It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What most people find difficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice.
The writer of the issue connotates an ironic phenomenon: though innovation is required in our era and eulogized by most people, application of it is clannished vehemently because of the fear of failure and the possibility of obtained possession and tradition impairing. The author grasps the paradox psychology of most people and pertinently reveals a universal mentality.
As is known that innovation may bring big progress and result in even a revolutionary transition of a society: the elevated efficiency of work, the ameliorated life, the enticing fruit of new technology and so on. Following with innovation of the second industrial revolution, great changes took place and immediately a renewed world unfolded before us with the application of its fruits. Seeing unimaginable profits and the magic power, who (including the society and government) can suppress their agitating desire to restrict development of innovation?
Unfortunately, innovation doesn't always follow the people's will and always acts like an uncontroled horse running in the plain. Worrying about the side-effect, people have to hold their desire back but admire those who are brave enough to taste crabs for the first time. Not everyone possesses the same courage as Biil Gate's, who dare invest on a fresh field and give up the chance of studying in Harvard University, which is the dream of most aggressive young people. Often, pondering what they have already possessed with what they might get from innovation, most people prefer the former to the latter, even content to sacrifice the latter to ensure the integer of the former. For example, a department may enroll those who are not very deft in the work but behave complaisant before higher-ups and deny to those who stick to their innovational opinion obstinately. After all, it is required more to cooperate with others harmoniously and conform to the traditional rules nowadays than to creat a new law according to individual penchant, in any company and corporation.
Maybe, some one argues that, how to cultivate innovation if personality should abdicate to interests of collective? Does the statement above alludes that employees should do nothing but keep silent and follow what the higher-ups dictated, strangling their inspiration to accord to the criterion today? No doubt, such supposition is rediculous. I mean that employees should try to approach their original though to tenet of the collective, not attempt to disobey the existed norm, respect suggestion and supposition of others and circumspect the innovation and then discuss with all the members in the company. That is, responsibility should be taken before the innovation is applied to practice.
Of course, many people don't have the ability that controling their compulsion of carrying their innovation into application. It doesn't lack of people who dare not apply innovation, and people who hold innovational thought are not scarc either, however,those who possess both of the two abilities and are lucky enough to encounter a proper opportunity to release their innovation is very few. The seperation of spirit of application and creation of innovation is the root of the the strange phenomenon, that innovation and new ideas are here and there while the acceptance and combination of them with application is too little to be heard.
Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning.
The speaker asserts people are more likely to attain success when taking chances or risks than planning carefully and cautiously. However, after comparing the characteristics of careful planning and taking chances, I strongly hold that they are of the same importance in the pursuit of success.
In competitive sports, while making appropriate training plans and effective competition strategies constitute necessary conditions of winning the matches, taking risks is almost inevitable when athletes or their coaches confront a sudden matter that might influence the course of a match and that has not been taken into consideration beforehand. In modern competitive sports, it is widely acknowledged that scientific and effective training contributes to athletes’ better performance during matches. Good competition strategies, on the other hand, resulting in the better allocation of physical force, better use of skills or the higher rate in scoring, also play a vital role.
However, when the star players of a soccer team or a basketball team are off the game or fail to implement their chief coach's strategic intention, leaving the whole team in adverseness, the coach faces the choice whether to substitute he/she or not. No doubt substituting a star player with a bench player means taking risk because the bench player may not perform as good as the star player and may make matters worse. If this happens, the substitution will incur discontentment of the players and critique from the team's fans, media and the boss. The capability of the coach may then be suspected and he/she may even be fired. Nevertheless, if the coach dares not to take the risk to substitute a poorly performed star player, his/her team will probably lose the game. Taking chances and risks is reasonable when one is dealing with something that has not been taken into consideration previously. So, in competitive sports, planning and risking are both necessary.
In academic fields, careful and cautious planning is required for large projects and application disciplines while revolutionary scientific breakthroughs are almost impossible without taking chances or risks. Before starting the research project on human genome, scientists had already made plans on the content and method of the research. They did not have to take any chances or risks because all they should do have already been carefully planned. There were no technical obstacles that had not been solved. Therefore, they just followed the plan step by step and accomplished the project in the end. As for significant scientific breakthroughs, they are the important discoveries and theories that disaccord, at least to some extent, with established principles or our intuitions, such as the Theory of Relativity and quantum mechanics. One has no choice but to take chances because established theories may not be applicable on the boundary of what is known and what is unknown. Only after being examined through experiments, practices and observations, can they be confirmed or belied. In a word, planning and taking chances or risks are different means for different levels of academic researches.
In the business world, cautious planning contributes to the long-term development of a company and at the same time, risking is imperative for a company to survive, develop and thrive in the highly competitive society. Planning carefully on inquiring market, training stuff and manufacturing products ensure a company's long-term development by keeping its profit increasing or at least not declining. On the other hand, taking risks, such as incorporating with another company, involving in the market fields that have already been occupied by other enterprises or involving in the market fields that are not considered so profitable, is also necessary because these may save the company from the adversity or help to set foot in new businesses. Clearly,in the business field, planning and risking complement each other.
To conclude, success in any realm of life comes equally from taking chances or risks and from careful and cautious planning. In most cases, they complement each other and pave the way towards success.