“Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. Until scholars can reach a wider audience，their ideas will have little use.”
Although academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years，scholars' ideas can still reach a wide audience by the advantage of the knowledge structure. We can simply put that it is the human beings' knowledge structure that makes it possible for a scholar's ideas in his specialized discipline to reach a much wider audiences who don't necessarily belong to his own discipline.
The reason why I draw this conclusion will be illustrated by recalling the process of social evolution.
During the passed centuries，the social economy has been greatly boosted by the revolutions in science and technology，which in turn increases the width and depth of academic disciplines to solve unencountered and more complex problems arising in the new situations. To solve new problems，we probably need new methods. That will undoubtedly calls for invention of new ideas，which will certainly adds to human beings' knowledge. Thus with the progress of science and technology，more and more knowledge will be added to the old system. A new problem will come： how the newly obtained knowledge is organized. This problem will be clear when we make classification of the new knowledge according to the old knowledge system. If there is content of the newly-get that doesn't properly belong to any sort of the old system，it means a
new discipline will emerge. But could we just assert that the newly formed discipline doesn't possess any relationship with any of the old ones? Certainly not. This is because the new knowledge is obtained through the old methods，which obviously means the new knowledge do have some connections with some old disciplines，otherwise I am quite sure we could not find it!
From the above，we can easily reach the conclusion that every academic discipline has certain relationships with some other ones. The structure of human's knowledge is just like the complexity of a net! And also it is a natural trend that academic disciplines become more and more specialized.
With the depositing and specializing process of knowledge，it causes humans to accommodate themselves to this situation. Because the God gives every person a limited time and energy，it is necessary for a person，who wants to make progress in his discipline，to adjust his knowledge structure to adapt to his research domain，that is to say，to be more devoted to his own research area. On the other hand，if he cares too much for unrelated or less related area，he will probably not be able to bring innovation to his main academic discipline. Simply put，we almost cannot find a man who constructs the Theory of Relativity and in the mean time composes symphony like Mozart's! So we can say every scholar must be more devoted to his own discipline than to others，but a wider knowledge of other disciplines sometimes involuntarily invokes sparks of new ideas.
Much of the information that people assume is‘factual’actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus，any piece of information referred to as a‘fact’should be mistrusted since it may well be proven false in the future.
Should we be doubtful to all the information at hands because the rightness of which is uncertain? The speaker claims so，I concede that people often commit various fallacies in the course of cognizing things，however I fundamentally take exception of the arguer's assertion to mistrust every fact we might encounter. And I will substantially discuss my views thereinafter.
To begin with，the speaker seems to implicate that a fact would be proven false in the future under numerous circumstance. Nevertheless I prefer to arguer that facts never change. No matter how did the Medieval Church and Inquisition persecute Bruno，the fact never changes that the earth is far from being the center of the universe as the religious sovereigns had assumed or hoped for，while just a minor particle in it. Equally，no matter how Edison had tried to incite the public fear and distrust to the alternative current electricity，the fact never changes that Teals’ electrical system is vastly superior to his direct current electrical one，and would be accepted and applied in larger range.
However，what do change are the human's objective interpretations to facts. One compelling argument to this point is that，due to the limitation of human’s knowledge and comprehensive capability，they tend to make insufficient or even false understanding to the certain fact. An apt illustration is the changes of
cognition to disease. While at the ancient time，our progenitors believed the a man becoming a patient for the reason that he had conduct crimes or offended some ghosts or spirits，the contemporary people have well know that the varies of pathogens are the basic causes to our diseases，and the defects of our immune system and so forth are also the factors as well. Another argument for the change of comprehension to fact is that different people always observe and interpret from different perspectives. Though the Relativity theory is not well compliable with the Quantum mechanism，no one call the greatness of both Einstein and Bohr，because their theories are based on distinct views，the former from the macrocosm and the later from the microcosm.
Notwithstanding the foregoing reasons for that human tend to make fallacies during the cause of comprehending and cognizing facts，these reasons should never be the excuses to doubt every conclusion we might draw from facts. Based on certain rational inference and proper knowledge fundament，the conclusions we make might well be justifiable，if not completely right，to certain degree. What we need to do is to promote the enterprise of pursuing the better answer and try to use the result we have get to application，instead of wasting our time to undue doubt and suspicion. Though the medical scientists have not fully understood the mechanism of how the does the implanted organ interact with the wounded body，they are not refrain from using the implanting skill to save patients，of course the precondition or which is that this technology is much well established than the fundamental theory.