1. Note taking：学生在阅读和听力过程中应该有效记录重点信息，这些信息在接下来的写作任务中将起到非常重要的作用。
3.在听力中要带着问题去听，同时去记录一些重点信息。听力中一般反驳阅读中的观点，因此会给出一些细节或是例子，在听力中重点去听教授是如何使用一些证据去反驳阅读中的信息，对于类似于for example，for instance，another explanation等表达后面的内容我们要尤其注意。
People who develop different skills are more successful than people who develop one skill only.
When it comes to the qualities of successful people, people varying in education background and experience tend to give distinctive answers. Some would argue that those who are successful should be versatile and excel in lots of skills like communication skills, leadership skills and even organizational skills while others believe that one who is exceptional in one area is more likely to be successful. I personally believe that a versatile person with various skill sets can be more successful.
Admittedly, as the saying goes Jack of all trades and master of none and there are rare cases where some people who are expert in only one field stand out. However, it is more common for versatile people with multiple skills to be successful because of the following reasons.
First off, people who are talented and versatile are more competitive and competent in their career, and they enjoy a better change to be promoted in a professional setting. Actually, a lot of positions require a combination of skill sets, such as paying attention to details, knowledge in a specific field and communication skills, etc. Indeed, more skills will give someone more chance to get promoted. For instance, if a computer programmer just knows how to write program and focuses only on the technical side of the job, chances are that he would never get promoted. On the other hand, if not only does the computer programmer have programming skills but also he is a genius people-wise, he might get a better shot to be promoted as a manager in charge of a team of computer programmers. Thus, he can enjoy more opportunities in his career.
Additionally, it is much easier for a versatile person with various skill sets to build rapport with people and make friends. It is self-evident that people with all kinds of skills will be very attractive and charismatic. A person who not only has professional knowledge in one specific field but also has people skills and leadership skills will be very popular and standing out among his or her peers. For instance, my friend Alex, a bright young professional working in the financial industrial. He was awarded the most valuable banker in his company because of his professionalism and dedication to serving the customers and clients. Not only is he successful in his professional life, but also he is an amateur violinist. Actually, he plays for a city choir to represent the community and go against other cities' choir. Such skills can be very useful when building up connections with people and thus he can expand his social network easily. Furthermore, he can use these skills to entertain his clients and customers on certain occasions and have their trust on him.
In conclusion, a versatile person with various skill sets can be more competitive and outstrip others in the workplace, eventually they enjoy better chance to be promoted. Another advantage of having multiples skills is that it can be much easier and readily for them to network and expand their social connections.
(A/D)Spending a long time in making an important decision is often considered as a bad quality. However, some people think that it is a good quality for a person.
A/D: One quality that a successful leader must have is to make decision quickly; when a leader takes too much time to make decisions, he will be seen as ineffective to the people he lead.
2016年8月20日托福独立写作题目： A/D: One quality that a successful leader must have is to make decision quickly; when a leader takes too much time to make decisions, he will be seen as ineffective to the people he lead. (来自学生回忆版，与原题可能有少许出入，但题干表达意思大体相同)
With the society becoming increasingly complex, we make numerous decisions every single day, some of which are simple while others of which are more complex. The issue whether Spending a long time in making an important decision is often considered as a good quality has triggered a hot debate. Personally speaking, my answer towards this question is negative, that is, making quick decision is good, for the following reasons.
First of all, making quick decisions can help people grasp the precious opportunities.As is known to all, change is the permanent topic in nearly every area of life including day-to-day life and business world. In other words, the opportunities may vanish in the blink of an eye. As a result, people who spend much time pondering different paths for the fear of making errors may end up missing out the chances. On the contrary, quick decision making will boost the likelihood of seizing the opportunities, which makes his or her have an edge over other competitors. This is especially true of the business competition. In the commercial world, To illustrate, a decisive leader will not block subordinates from getting things done and thus . For example, if an entrepreneur find changes in the needs of customers, there is a need of quick decisions to satisfy their new demand. Without quick response to the appeals of the clients, competitors around the same business may take the initiative to make headway in these emerging markets.
Apart from that, making quick decicions reflects the strong ability of analysis of a person. As is common sense, analytical skills is a basis for quick decision making. As you can see, an analytical skill is the ability of a person to draw conclusions and to make quality decisions based on incomplete information. Put it in another way, the characteristic of analytical people is to address all of the critical elements needed for a successful outcome more quickly than average persons can do. Consequently, these decisive people will leave a good impression on others and thus improve their charisma. By contrast, spending too much time in making decisions means that you can only make up your mind after collecting all the information. This practice may make others feel that you are hesitant in doing things.
Admittedly, some opponents may assert that it is a good quality to spend a long time in decision-making, because the quality of the decision certainly depends on the speed of making it. However, the above claim has overlooked a fact that no matter how much time you spend making a decision, there is always a chance that it won’t turn out the way you had envisioned. In this case, the quick decision making can help you more timely fix the wrong decisions.
In a nutshell, spending long time in decision making is anything but a good quality, because people will let opportunities slip off and leave a indecisive impression on others.
An efficient leader is a key factor for the successful development of an enterprise and how to define an effective leader varies from person to person. Some people may believe a leader must make a quick decision to be successful since opportunity seldom knocks twice. However, some others contradict with the statement and they argue that leaders, especially those in the area of politics and business, have to be patient enough to be considerate. From my perspective, I am more favor of the former one.
When it comes to the area of business, leaders have to acclimatize themselves to the constantly changing environment and respond soon enough to grasp the chance. A number of examples can be found around us to demonstrate the exceptional urgency of making quick decision. Mark Zuckerberg made a quick decision to acquire Instagram, which turned out to be bold but successful, given Twitter, one of Facebook’s strongest competitors, had already considered to merge Ins. Besides, the landslide of Apple over Nokia, one of the giants in the phones’ market can prove the importance of responding quick for leaders. Those leaders of conventional ideas in Nokia stuck to manufacturing keyboard phones and still refused to center on developing and researching Touch-screen technology, which has proven to be a big mistake. As a result, Nokia had to declare bankruptcy. When reflecting on the failure of Nokia and success of Apple, the key is to make a quick decision to reform products to satisfy consumers’ tastes and demands.
Speaking of national leaders, making a swift and effective decision will be highly indispensable to deal with various emergencies. To prevent the exacerbation of some events, politicians have to take quick and credible actions. For instance, the outburst of Ebola virus has caused serious damage to human beings and as a leader of a country, he has to make an instantaneous decision to assemble medical experts and restrict the migration movement of population. Another convincing example would be the military action aiming at ISIS, a self-proclaimed country but a terror organization. The president of the United States called on Britain and several other Western countries to launch a joint military strike to crack down those terrorists after many innocent civilians including journalists, local residents or tourists from different country were killed by those extremists. Although the terror group was not wiped out yet, the immediate action had played a major role in reducing threats from those. Obviously, for politicians and national leaders, it is necessary to take quick action.
Admittedly, there is also an opposite voice echoing that leaders have to be patient to reduce the possibilities of causing missteps. For instance, during World War Two, to win the success, Franklin Roosevelt gave the order to hit Japan by dropping atomic bombs soon after the Pearl Harbor was attacked. The explosion of those two atomic bombs led Japan to surrender, however, caused huge damage to local environment. It appears plausible, however, the consequences of not using atomic bombs would be more disastrous because of Japan militarism’s great harm to the entire human beings.
To conclude, leaders have to make a response and decision as quick as possible in most occasions no matter which field they are in.